1. Ainsworth M. E-therapy: History and Survey. Available at http://www.metanoia.org/imhs/history.htm.
2. Zimmermann KA, Emspak J. Internet History Timeline: ARPANET to the World Wide Web. Available at https://www.livescience.com/20727-internet-history.html.
3. Andersson G, Carlbring P, Holmström A, et al. Internet-based self-help with therapist feedback and in vivo group exposure for social phobia: a randomized controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2006;74(4):677-686.
4. Beder J. Cybersolace: technology built on emotion. Soc Work. 2005;50(4):355-358.
5. Schembri AM. www.why-social-workers-need-to-embrace-Web2.0.com.au. Australian Social Work. 2008;61(2):119-123.
6. Boulos MNK, Wheeler S. The emerging Web 2.0 social software: an enabling suite of sociable technologies in health and health care education. Health Info Libr J. 2007;24:2-23.
7. Castelnuovo G, Gaggioli A, Mantovani F, Riva G. From psychotherapy to e-therapy: the integration of traditional techniques and new communication tools in clinical settings. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2003;6(4):375-382.
8. Celio AA, Winzelberg AJ, Taylor CB, et al. Reducing risk factors for eating disorders: comparisons of an Internet- and a classroom-delivered psychoeducational program. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2000;68(4):650-657.
9. Childress C. Ethical issues in providing online psychotherapeutic interventions. J Med Internet Res. 2000;2(1):e5.
10. Clark C, Gorski P. Multicultural education and the digital divide: focus on gender. Multicultural Perspectives. 2002;4(1):30-40.
11. Comer RJ. Abnormal Psychology: DSM-5 Update. 8th ed. New York, NY: Worth Publishers; 2013.
12. Corey G, Corey MS, Callanan P. Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions. 8th ed. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company; 2010.
13. Corrigan PW. Mental health stigma as social attribution: implications for research methods and attitude change. Clin Psychol. 2000;7(1):48-67.
14. Dickerson SS. Gender differences in stories of everyday Internet use. Health Care Women Int. 2003;24(5):434-451.
15. Fairburn CG, Beglin SJ. Studies of the epidemiology of bulimia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry. 1990;147(4):401-408.
16. Hansen M, Erdley S. YouTube and other Web 2.0 applications for nursing education. OJNI. 2009;13(3):1-20.
17. Finn J. MSW student perceptions of the efficacy and ethics of Internet-based therapy. J Soc Work Educ. 2002;38(3):403-419.
18. O’Reilly T. What is Web 2.0? Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software. Available at http://oreilly.com/web2/archive/what-is-web-20.html.
19. Rockinson-Szapkiw AJ, Walker VL. Web 2.0 technologies: facilitating interaction in an online human services counseling skills course. J Technol Hum Serv. 2009;27(3):175-193.
20. Computer History Museum. Internet History 1962 to 1992. Available at http://www.computerhistory.org/internet_history.
21. Greer BG. Psychological and support functions of an e-mail mailing list for persons with cerebral palsy. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2000;3(2):221-235.
22. Griffiths M, Cooper G. Online therapy: implications for problem gamblers and clinicians. Br J Guid Counc. 2003;31(1):113-135.
23. Guillén MF, Suárez SL. Explaining the global digital divide: economic, political, and sociological drivers of cross-national Internet use. Soc Forces. 2005;84(2):681-708.
24. Gundling E. How to communicate globally. Train Dev J.
25. Guterman JT, Kirk MA. Mental health counselors and the Internet. Journal of Mental Health Counseling. 1999;21(4):309-325.
26. Hall ET. The Dance of Life: The Other Dimension of Time. New York: Anchor; 1983.
27. Hamburger YA, Ben-Artzi E. The relationship between extraversion and neuroticism and the different uses of the Internet. Comput Human Behav. 2000;16:441-449.
28. Harvey-Berino J, Pintauro S, Buzzell P, et al. Does using the Internet facilitate the maintenance of weight loss? Int J Obes. 2002;26(9):1254-1260.
29. Conners J. History of the World Wide Web. Available at https://www.whoishostingthis.com/resources/history-of-web. Last accessed December 7, 2020.
30. Herring SC. Gender and Democracy in Computer-Mediated Communication. Available at http://www.cios.org/EJCPUBLIC/003/2/00328.html.
31. Hilty DM, Marks SL, Urness D, et al. Clinical and educational telepsychiatry applications: a review. Can J Psychiatry. 2004;49(1):12-23.
32. Hilty DM, Luo JS, Morache C, Marcelo DA, Nesbitt TS. Telepsychiatry: an overview for psychiatrists. CNS Drugs. 2002;16(8): 527-548.
33. Statistica. Most Popular Online Activities of Adult Internet Users in the United States as of November 2019. Available at https://www.statista.com/statistics/183910/internet-activities-of-us-users.
34. Internet Society. A Brief History of the Internet. Available at https://www.internetsociety.org/internet/history-internet/brief-history-internet.
35. Irwin L. Gender inequities in technology in developing nations: females and computers in traditional cultures. Intercultural Education. 2000;11(2):195-199.
36. Johari A, Bentley JPH, Tinney MV, Chia BH. Intercultural Internet-based learning: know your audience and what it values. Educational Technology Research and Development. 2005;53(2):117-127.
37. Joo JE. Cultural issues of the Internet in the classrooms. Br J Educ Technol. 1999;30(3):245-250.
38. Kalichman SC, Cherry C, Cain D, et al. Internet-based health information consumer skills intervention for people living with HIV/AIDS. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2006;74(3):545-554.
39. Lasker JN, Sogolow ED, Sharim RR. The role of an online community for people with a rare disease: content analysis of messages posted on a primary biliary cirrhosis mailing list. J Med Internet Res. 2005;7(1).
40. Leidner DE, Kayworth T. A review of culture in information systems research: toward a theory of information technology culture conflict. MIS Quarterly. 2006;30(2):357-399.
41. Leonard S. The development and evaluation of a telepsychiatry service for prisoners. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2004;11(4): 461-468.
42. Leibert T. Making change visible: the possibilities in assessing mental health counseling outcomes. J Couns Dev. 2006;84(1):108-113.
43. Leibert T, Archer J, Munson J, York G. An exploratory study on client perceptions of Internet counseling and the therapeutic alliance. Journal of Mental Health Counseling. 2006;28(1):69-83.
44. Lynch EW. Developing cross-cultural competence. In: Lynch EW, Hanson MJ (eds). Developing Cross-Cultural Competence: A Guide for Working With Children and Their Families. 4th ed. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing Company; 2011.
45. Lyons JS, Howard KI, O’Mahoney MT, Lish JD. The Measurement and Management of Clinical Outcomes in Mental Health. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; 1997.
46. Health Resources and Services Administration. Telehealth Programs. Available at https://www.hrsa.gov/rural-health/telehealth.
47. Manhal-Baugus M. E-therapy: practical, ethical, and legal issues. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2001;4(5):551-563.
48. McClure RF, Livingston RB, Livingston KH, Gage R. A survey of practicing psychotherapists. Journal of Professional Counseling: Practice, Theory and Research. 2005;33(1):35-46.
49. Mcloughlin C. Culturally responsive technology use: developing an on-line community of learners. Br J Educ Technol. 1999;30(3):231-244.
50. Menard-Warwick J, Dabach DB. “In a little while I could be in front:” social mobility, class, and gender in the computer practices of two Mexican families. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy. 2004;47(5):380-389.
51. U.S. Census Bureau. Computer and Internet Use in the United States: 2016. Available at https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2018/acs/ACS-39.pdf.
52. Pew Research Center. Internet/Broadband Fact Sheet. Available at http://www.pewinternet.org/fact-sheet/internet-broadband.
53. Bernard HR. Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.; 2013.
54. Pew Research Internet Project. Social Media Fact Sheet. Available at https://www.pewinternet.org/fact-sheet/social-media.
55. Okun BF, Fried J, Okun ML. Understanding Diversity: A Learning-As-Practice Primer. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company; 1999.
56. Oravec JA. Online counselling and the Internet: perspectives for mental health care supervision and education. J Ment Health. 2000;9(2):121-135.
57. Parks MR, Roberts LD. “Making MOOsic:” the development of personal relationships online and comparison to their off-line counterparts. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships. 1998;15(4):517-537.
58. Patrick PK. Internet counseling: trends, applications and ethical issues. In: Patrick PK (ed). Contemporary Issues in Counseling. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.; 2007: 253-293.
59. Postmes T, Spears R, Sakhel I, de Groot. Social influence in computer-mediated communication: the effects of anonymity on group behavior. Pers Soc Psychol Rev. 2001;27(10):1243-1254.
60. Recupero PR, Rainey SE. Informed consent to e-therapy. Am J Psychother. 2005;59(4):319-331.
61. Reese RJ, Conoley CW, Brossart DF. The attractiveness of telephone counseling: an empirical investigation of client perceptions.J Couns Dev. 2006;84(1):54-60.
62. U.S. Census Bureau. Computer and Internet Use in the United States: 2015. Available at https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2017/acs/acs-37.pdf.
63. Andreassen HK, Bujnowska-Fedak MM, Chronaki CE, et al. European citizens’ use of E-health services: a study of seven countries. BMC Public Health. 2007;7:53.
64. Robson D, Robson M. Ethical issues in Internet counselling. Couns Psychol Q. 2000;13(3):249-257.
65. Rochlen AB, Zack JS, Speyer C. Online therapy: Review of relevant definitions, debates, and current empirical support. J Clin Psychol. 2004;60(3):269-283.
66. Rondino M. Breaking out of binaries: reconceptualizing gender and its relationship to language in computer-mediated communication. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. 1997;3(3).
67. Rovai AP. Building classroom community at a distance: a case study. Educational Technology Research and Development Journal. 2001;49(4):33-48.
68. Rovai AP, Baker JD. Gender differences in online learning: sense of community, perceived learning, and interpersonal interactions. Quarterly Review of Distance Education. 2005;6(1):31-47.
69. Royse D, Thyer BA, Padgett DK, Logan TK. Program Evaluation: An Introduction. 5th ed. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning; 2009.
70. Sampson JP, Kolodinsky RW, Greeno B. Counseling on the Information Highway: future possibilities and potential problems.J Couns Dev. 1997;75(3):203-212.
71. Inciardi JA, Surratt HL, Cicero TJ, et al. Prescription drugs purchased through the Internet: who are the end users? Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010;110(1-2):21-29.
72. Shaw HE, Shaw SF. Critical ethical issues in online counseling: assessing current practices with an Ethical Intent Checklist. J Couns Dev. 2006;84(1):41-53.
73. Singh NN, Mckay JD, Singh AN. Culture and mental health: nonverbal communication. J Child Fam Stud. 1998;7(4):403-409.
74. Stanley LD. Beyond access: psychosocial barriers to computer literacy. Information Society. 2003;19(5):407-416.
75. Suler J. Assessing a person’s suitability for online therapy: the ISMHO Clinical Case Study Group. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2001;4(6):675-679.
76. Tate DF, Jackvony EH, Wing RR. Effects of Internet behavioral counseling on weight loss in adults at risk for Type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2003;289(14):1833-1836.
77. Pew Internet. Mobile Access 2010. Available at https://www.pewinternet.org/2010/07/07/mobile-access-2010. Last accessed October 8, 2020.
78. Leung L. Internet embeddedness: links with online health information seeking, expectancy value/quality of health information websites, and Internet usage patterns. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2008;11(5):565-569.
79. Wahl OF. Mental health consumers’ experience of stigma. Schizophr Bull. 1999;25(3):467-478.
80. Wasserman IM, Richmond-Abbott M. Gender and the Internet: causes of variation in access, level, and scope of use. Social Science Quarterly. 2005;86(1):252-270.
81. Weiser EB. Gender differences in Internet use patterns and Internet application preferences: a two-sample comparison. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2000;3(2):167-178.
82. Young KS. An empirical examination of client attitudes toward online counseling. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2005;8(2):172-177.
83. Harris Interactive. “Cyberchondriacs” on the Rise? Available at https://theharrispoll.com/the-latest-harris-poll-measuring-how-many-people-use-the-internet-to-look-for-information-about-health-topics-finds-that-the-numbers-continue-to-increase-the-harris-poll-first-used-the-word-cyberch. Last accessed October 8, 2020.
84. Fox S. The Engaged E-Patient Population. Available at https://www.pewinternet.org/2008/08/26/the-engaged-e-patient-population.
85. Miller EA, West DM. Where’s the revolution? Digital technology and health care in the Internet age. J Health Polit Policy Law. 2009;34(2):261-284.
86. Morahan-Martin JM. How internet users find, evaluate, and use online health information: a cross-cultural review. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2004;7(5):497-510.
87. Ardito SC. The medical blogosphere: how social networking platforms are changing medical searching. Search Medford N J. 2009;17(5):22-51.
88. Fox S. Mobile Health 2010. Available at https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2010/10/19/mobile-health-2010/. Last accessed October 8, 2020.
89. Fallows D. Search Engine Users. Available at https://www.pewinternet.org/2005/01/23/search-engine-users. Last accessed October 8, 2020.
90. Bernhardt JM, Felter EM. Online pediatric information seeking among mothers of young children: results from a qualitative study using focus groups. J Med Internet Res. 2004;6(1):e7.
91. Rainie L, Spooner T. Hispanics and the Internet. Available at https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2001/07/25/hispanics-and-the-internet. Last accessed October 8, 2020.
92. Peña-Purcell N. Hispanics’ use of Internet health information: an exploratory study. J Med Libr Assoc. 2008;96(2):101-107.
93. Skinner A, Zack JS. Counseling and the Internet. Am Behav Sci. 2004;48(4):434-446.
94. Conn J. Upgrading to Health 2.0. Mod Healthc. 2007;37(49):32-33.
95. Zahnd WE, Scaife SL, Francis ML. Health literacy skills in rural and urban populations. Am J Health Behav. 2009;33(5):550-557.
96. Mancuso JM. Health literacy: a concept/dimensional analysis. Nurs Health Sci. 2008;10(3):248-255.
97. Lau JTF, Lau M, Cheung A, Tsui HY. A randomized controlled study to evaluate the efficacy of an Internet-based intervention in reducing HIV risk behaviors among men who have sex with men in Hong Kong. AIDS Care. 2008;20(7):820-828.
98. Robertson L, Smith M, Castle D, Tannenbau D. Using the Internet to enhance the treatment of depression. Australas Psychiatry. 2006;14(4):413-417.
99. Wong DK, Cheung MK. Online health information seeking and ehealth literacy among patients attending a primary care clinic in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional survey. Journal ofMedical Internet Research. 2019;21(3):e10831.
100. Webelhorst C, Jepsen L, Rummel-Kluge C. Utilization of e-mental-health and online self-management interventions of patients with mental disorders: a cross-sectional analysis. PLoS One. 2020;15(4):e023137.
101. Fukkink RG, Hermanns J. Children’s experiences with chat support and telephone support. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2009;50(6):759-766.
102. Armstrong N, Powell J. Patient perspectives on health advice posted on Internet discussion boards: a qualitative study. Health Expect. 2009;12(3):313-320.
103. Owen JE, Bantum EO, Golant M. Benefits and challenges experienced by professional facilitators of online support groups for cancer survivors. Psychooncology. 2009;18(2):144-155.
104. Luo JS. Telemedicine: is it time now? Prim Psychiatry. 2007;15(2):27-30.
105. Jadhav A, Andrews D, Fiksdal A, et al. Comparative analysis of online health queries originating from personal computers and smart devices on a consumer health information portal. J Med Internet Res. 2014;16(7):196-209.
106. Gaggioli A, Mantovani F, Castelnuovo G, et al. Avatars in clinical psychology: a framework for the clinical use of virtual humans. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2003;6(2):117-125.
107. Girard B, Turcotte V, Bouchard S, Girard B. Crushing virtual cigarettes reduces tobacco addiction and treatment discontinuation. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2009;12(5):477-483.
108. Kamel Boulos MN, Toth-Cohen S. The University of Plymouth Sexual Health SIM experience in Second Life: evaluation and reflections after 1 year. Health Info Libr J. 2009;26(4):279-288.
109. Walker VL. 3D virtual learning in counselor education: using Second Life in counselor skill development. Journal of Virtual Worlds Research. 2009;2(1):3-14.
110. Preziosa A, Grassi A, Gaggioli A, Riva G. Therapeutic applications of the mobile phone. Br J Guid Counc. 2009;37(3):313-325.
111. Heron KE, Smyth JM. Ecological momentary interventions: incorporating mobile technology into psychosocial and health behaviour treatments. Br J Health Psychol. 2010;15(1):1-39.
112. Matthews M, Doherty G, Sharry J, Fitzpatrick C. Mobile phone mood charting for adolescents. Br J Guid Counc. 2008;36(2): 113-129.
113. Gustafson DH, Boyle MG, Shaw BR, et al. An e-health solution for people with alcohol problems. Alcohol Res Health. 2010;33(4):327-337.
114. Goss S, Anthony K. Developments in the use of technology in counseling and psychotherapy. Br J Guid Counc. 2009;37(3): 223-230.
115. Maples MF, Han S. Cybercounseling in the United States and South Korea: implications for counseling college students of the millennial generation and the networked generation. J Couns Dev. 2008;86(2):178-183.
116. Richards D. Features and benefits of online counseling: Trinity College online mental health community. Br J Guid Counc. 2009;37(3):231-242.
117. U.S. Census Bureau. Census Bureau Reports Housing is Top Reason People Moved Between 2009 and 2010. Available at https://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/mobility_of_the_population/cb11-91.html. Last accessed October 8, 2020.
118. Lester D. The use of the Internet for counseling the suicidal individual: possibilities and drawbacks. Omega. 2008;58(3):233-250.
119. Haberstroh S. Strategies and resources for conducting online counseling. Journal of Professional Counseling: Practice, Theory & Research. 2009;37(2):1-20.
120. Haberstroh S, Duffey T, Evans M, et al. The experience of online counseling. J Ment Health Couns. 2007;29(3):269-282.
121. Twu HL. Effective wiki strategies to support high-context culture learners. TechTrends. 2009;53(5):16-22.
122. Wang M. Designing online courses that effectively engage learners from diverse cultural backgrounds. Br J Educ Technol. 2007;38(2):294-311.
123. Rau PP, Gao Q, Sheau-Farn ML. Good computing systems for everyone: how on earth? Cultural aspects. Behav Inf Technol. 2008;27(4):287-292.
124. Fox S, Duggan M. Mobile Health: 2012. Available at https://www.pewinternet.org/2012/11/08/mobile-health-2012. Last accessed October 8, 2020.
125. Baron NS. See you online: gender issues in college student use of instant messaging. J Lang Soc Psychol. 2004;23(4):397-423.
126. Santhiveeran J. Compliance of social work e-therapy websites to the NASW Code of Ethics. Soc Work Health Care. 2009;48(1): 1-13.
127. International Society for Mental Health Online. Suggested Principles for the Online Provision of Mental Health Services. Available at http://ismho.org/resources/archive/suggested-principles-for-the-online-provision-of-mental-health-services. Last accessed October 8, 2020.
128. Micco N, Gold B, Buzzell P, Leonard H, Pintauro S, Harvey-Berino J. Minimal in-person support as an adjunct to Internet obesity treatment. Ann Behav Med. 2007;33(1):49-56.
129. Newton MS, Ciliska D. Internet-based innovations for the prevention of eating disorders: a systematic review. Eat Disord. 2006;14(5):365-384.
130. Schoenberger YM, Phillips J, Mohiuddin MO, et al. Acceptability of delivering and accessing health information through text messaging among community health advisors. J Med Internet Res. 2013;1(2):e22.
131. Malbos E, Mestre DR, Note ID, Gellato C. Virtual reality and claustrophobia: multiple components therapy involving game editor virtual environments exposure. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2008;11(6):695-697.
132. Yoo HJ, Park MS, Kim TN, et al. A ubiquitous chronic disease care system using cellular phones and the Internet. Diabet Med. 2009;26(6):628-635.
133. Tsan JY, Day SX. Personality and gender as predictors on online counseling use. J Technol Hum Serv. 2007;25(3):39-55.
134. National Association of Social Workers, Association of Social Work Boards, Council on Social Work Education, Clinical Social Work Association. Technology in Social Work Practice. Available at https://www.socialworkers.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=lcTcdsHUcng%3D&portalid=0. Last accessed October 9, 2020.
135. Prabhakar E. E-therapy: ethical considerations of a changing healthcare communication environment. Pastoral Psychology. 2013;62(2):211-221.
136. Rogers VL, Griffin MQ, Wykle ML, Fizpatrick JJ. Internet versus face-to-face therapy: emotional self-disclosure issues for young adults. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2009;30:596-602.
137. Dowling M, Rickwood D. Online counseling and therapy for mental health problems: a systematic review of individual synchronous interventions using chat. J Technol Hum Serv. 2013;31(1):1-21.
138. Richards D, Viganó N. Online counseling: a narrative and critical review of the literature. J Clin Psychol. 2013;69(9):994-1011.
139. Jefee-Bahloul H. Use of telepsychiatry in areas of conflict: the Syrian refugee crisis as an example. J Telemed Telecare. 2014;20(3):167-168.
140. Dooley JA, Jones SC, Iverson D. Using Web 2.0 for health promotion and social marketing efforts: lessons learned from Web 2.0 experts. Health Mark Q. 2014;31(2):178-196.
141. Reamer FG. Social work in a digital age: ethical and risk management challenges. Social Work. 2013;58(2):163-172.
142. Fukkink R. Peer counseling in an online chat service: a content analysis of social support. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2011;14(4):247-251.
143. King VL, Brooner RK, Peirce JM, et al. A randomized trial of web-based videoconferencing for substance abuse counseling. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2014;46(1):36-42.
144. Kozlowski KA, Holmes CM. Experiences in online process groups: a qualitative study. Journal for Specialists in Group Work. 2014;39(4):276-300.
145. Warren JM. Mobile mind mapping: using mobile technology to enhance rational emotive behavior therapy. J Ment Health Couns. 2012;34(1):72-81.
146. Bathje GJ, Kim E, Rau E, et al. Attitudes toward face-to-face and online counseling: roles of self-concealment, openness to experience, loss of face, stigma, and disclosure expectations among Korean college students. Int J Adv Couns. 2014;36:408-422.
147. Rodda S, Lubman DI, Dowling NA, et al. Web-based counseling for problem gambling: exploring motivations and recommendations. J Med Internet Res. 2014;15(5):e99.
148. Holmes C, Foster V. A preliminary comparison study of online and face-to-face counseling: client perceptions of three factors.J Technol Hum Serv. 2012;30(1):14-31.
149. Sucala M, Schnur JB, Brackman EH, et al. Clinicians’ attitudes toward therapeutic alliance in e-therapy. J Gen Psychol. 2013;140(4):282-293.
150. Holtbrügge D, Weldon A, Rogers H. Cultural determinants of email communication styles. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management. 2013;13(1):89-110.
151. Kavanagh B. A cross-cultural analysis of Japanese and English non-verbal online communication: the use of emoticons in weblogs. Intercultural Communication Studies. 2010;19(3):65-80.
152. Kimbrough AM, Guadagno RE, Muscanell NL, Dill J. Gender differences in mediated communication: women connect more than do men. Comput Human Behav. 2013;29(3):896-900.
153. Hu T, Zhang X, Dai H, Zhang P. An examination of gender differences among college students in their usage perceptions of the internet. Education and Information Technologies. 2012;17:315-330.
154. Atai MR, Chahkandi F. Democracy in computer-mediated communication: gender, communicative style, and amount of participation in professional listservs. Comput Human Behav. 2012;28(3):881-888.
155. Zhang Y, Dang Y, Chen H. Research note: examining gender emotional differences in Web forum communication. Decis Support Syst. 2013;55(3):851-860.
156. Poh Li L, Jaladin RAM, Abdullah HS. Understanding the two sides of online counseling and their ethical and legal ramifications. Procedia Soc Behav Sci. 2013;103(26):1243-1251.
157. Haberstroh S, Barney L, Foster N, Duffey T. The ethical and legal practice of online counseling and psychotherapy: a review of mental health professions. J Technol Hum Serv. 2014;32(3):149-157.
158. Hwang KO, Ning J, Trickey AW, Sciamanna CN. Website usage and weight loss in a free commercial online weight loss program: retrospective cohort study. J Med Internet Res. 2013;15(1):e11.
159. Serdar K, Kelly NR, Palmberg AA, et al. Comparing online and face-to-face dissonance-based eating disorder prevention. Eat Disord. 2014;22(3):244-260.
160. Titov N, Andrews G, Schwencke G. Treating social phobia online: replication and extension. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2008;42(7):595-605.
161. Diemer J, Mühlberger A, Pauli P, Zwanzger P. Virtual reality exposure in anxiety disorders: impact on psychophysiological reactivity. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2014;15(6):427-442.
162. Opriş D, Pintea S, García-Palacios A, et al. Virtual reality exposure therapy in anxiety disorders: a quantitative meta-analysis. Depress Anxiety. 2012;29(2):85-93.
163. David D, Matu S, David OA. New directions in virtual reality-based therapy for anxiety disorders. Int J Cogn Ther. 2013;6(2):114-137.
164. Mo PKH, Coulson NS. Developing a model for online support group use, empowering processes and psychosocial outcomes for individuals living with HIV/AIDS. Psychol Health. 2012;27(4):445-459.
165. Cohn MA, Pietrucha ME, Saslow LR, et al. An online positive affect skills intervention reduces depression in adults with type 2 diabetes. J Posit Psychol. 2014;9(6):523-534.
166. New Media Institute. History of the Internet. Available at https://www.newmedia.org/history-of-the-internet. Last accessed October 9, 2020.
167. Pew Research Center. Social Media Update 2016. Available at https://www.pewinternet.org/2016/11/11/social-media-update-2016. Last accessed October 9, 2020.
168. Zainudin ZN, Yusop YM. Cyber-Counseling: Is It Really New? Available at https://www.masree.info/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/IRJES-2018-VOL-2-ISSUE-2-ARTICLE-4.pdf. Last accessed December 7, 2020.
169. Nguyen A, Mosadeghi S, Almario CV. Persistent digital divide in access to and use of the Internet as a resource for health information: results from a California population-based study. Int J Med Inform. 2017;103:49-54.
170. Amante DJ, Hogan TP, Pagoto SL, English TM, Lapane KL. Access to care and use of the internet to search for health information: results from the U.S. National Health Interview Survey. JMIR. 2015;17(4):e106.
171. Li J, Theng Y, Foo S. Predictors of online health information seeking behavior: changes between 2002 and 2012. Health Informatics Journal. 2016;22(4):804-814.
172. Todd C, Mueller J, Jay C, Harper S, Davies A, Vega J. Web use for symptom appraisal of physical health conditions: a systematic review. JMIR. 2017;19(6):e202.
173. Best P, Manktelow R, Taylor BJ. Social work and social media: online help-seeking and the mental well-being of adolescent males. Br J Soc Work. 2016;46(1):257-276.
174. Rauch J. The History of Online Therapy. Available at https://www.talkspace.com/blog/2017/07/history-online-therapy. Last accessed October 9, 2020.
175. World Health Organization. Telemedicine: Opportunities and Developments in Member States. Available at http://www.who.int/goe/publications/goe_telemedicine_2010.pdf. Last accessed October 9, 2020.
176. Conell J, Bauer R, Glenn T, et al. Online information seeking by patients with bipolar disorder: results from an international multisite survey. Int J Bipolar Disord. 2016;4(1):1-14.
177. Salleh A, Hamzah R, Nordin N, Ghavifekr S, Joorabchi TN. Online counseling using email: a qualitative study. Asia Pacific Education Review. 2015;16(4):549-563.
178. Johnson SM. E-counselling: a review of practices and ethical considerations. Antistasis. 2017;7(1):38-47.
179. Stoll J, Müller JA, Trachsel M. Ethical issues in online psychotherapy: a narrative review. Front Psychiatry. 2020;10:993.
180. Stommel W, Van Der Houwen F. Counseling and new media technologies: a comparison of problem presentations in e-mail and in chat. Commun Med. 2015;12(2/3):243-256.
181. Griffiths KM, Carron-Arthur B, Reynolds J, Bennett K, Bennett A. User characteristics and usage of an open access moderated internet support group for depression and other mental disorders: a prospective study. Internet Interv. 2017;7:9-15.
182. Goldschmidt K. Tele-mental health for children: using videoconferencing for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). J Pediatr Nurs. 2016;31(6):742-744.
183. Kingsley A, Henning JA. Online and phone therapy: challenges and opportunities. J Individ Psychol. 2015;71(2):185-194.
184. Crum KI, Comer JS. Using synchronous videoconferencing to deliver family-based mental healthcare. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2016;26(3):229-234.
185. Freeman D, Reeve S, Robinson A, et al. Virtual reality in the assessment, understanding, and treatment of mental health disorders. Psychol Med. 2017;47:2393-2400.
186. Pietrabissa G, Manzoni GM, Algeri D, et al. Facebook use as access facilitator for consulting psychology. Aust Psychol. 2015;50(4):299-303.
187. Parmar A, Sharma P. Smartphone apps based psychotherapy in India: potential benefits and pitfalls. Asian J Psychiatr. 2016;21: 46-47.
188. Donker T, Blankers M, Hedman E, Ljótsson B, Petrie K, Christensen H. Economic evaluations of Internet interventions for mental health: a systematic review. Psychol Med. 2015;45(16):3357-3376.
189. Ross W. Web-based counseling: evaluating efficacy in light of ethical challenges and therapeutic advantages. Online Journal of Counseling & Education. 2016;5(2):35-49.
190. Shepler DK, Ho MA, Zoma PN, Bober CC, Dluzynski JL. Perceptions of the therapist in a virtual world: an exploratory analog study. The Humanistic Psychologist. 2016;44(2):164-176.
191. Morrison A. Online therapy: friend or foe for social work? New Social Worker. 2017;24(2):18-19.
192. Berger T. The therapeutic alliance in Internet interventions: a narrative review and suggestions for future research. Psychother Res. 2017;27(5):511-524.
193. Pflug J. Contextuality and computer-mediated communication: a cross cultural comparison. Comput Human Behav. 2016;56:375.
194. D, Kroumova M. Cross-cultural communication patterns in computer mediated communication. Journal of International Education Research. 2015;11(1):1-6.
195. Pew Research Center. Internet/Broadband Fact Sheet. Available at https://www.pewinternet.org/fact-sheet/internet-broadband. Last accessed October 9, 2020.
196. Krasnova H, Veltri NF, Eling N, Buxmann P. Why men and women continue to use social networking sites: the role of gender differences. Journal of Strategic Information Systems. 2017;26(4):261-284.
197. Swenson JE, Smothermon J, Rosenblad SR, Chalmers B. The future is here: ethical practices of telemental health. Journal of Psychology and Christianity. 2016;35(4):310-319.
198. Murphy JM, Pomerantz AM. Informed consent: an adaptable question format for telepsychology. Prof Psychol Res Pr. 2016;47(5):330-339.
199. Ross KM, Wing RR. Implementation of an internet weight loss program in a worksite setting. J Obes. 2016;2016:1-7.
200. Aardoom JJ, Dingemans AE, Fokkema M, Spinhoven P, Van Furth EF. Moderators of change in an Internet-based intervention for eating disorders with different levels of therapist support: what works for whom? Behav Res Ther. 2017;89:66-74.
201. Silfvernagel K, Wassermann C, Andersson G. Individually tailored internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for young adults with anxiety disorders: a pilot effectiveness study. Internet Interv. 2017;8(C): 48-52.
202. Kim HE, Hong YJ, Kim MK, Jung YH, Kyeong S, Kim JJ. Effectiveness of self-training using the mobile-based virtual reality program in patients with social anxiety disorder. Comput Human Behav. 2017;73:614-619.
203. Willis E. Patients’ self-efficacy within online health communities: facilitating chronic disease self-management behaviors through peer education. Health Commun. 2016;31(3):299-307.
204. Smith KJ, Kuo S, Zgibor JC, et al. Cost effectiveness of an Internet-delivered lifestyle intervention in primary care patients with high cardiovascular risk. Prev Med. 2016;87:103-109.
205. Mulhauser G. Suitability of Counselling by Email: Is it For You? Available at https://counsellingresource.com/therapy/service/suitability. Last accessed October 9, 2020.
206. Mallen MJ, Vogel DL. Introduction to the major contribution. The Counseling Psychologist. 2016;33(6):761-775.
207. World Health Organization. Telemedicine: Opportunities and Developments in Member States: Report on the Second Global Survey on eHealth. Available at https://www.who.int/goe/publications/goe_telemedicine_2010.pdf. Last accessed December 7, 2020.
208. Williams A, Farhall J, Fossey E, Thomas N. Internet-based interventions to support recovery and self-management: a scoping review of their use by mental health service users and providers together. BMC Psychiatry. 2019;19(1):1-16.
209. Hu Y. Helping is healing: examining relationships between social support, intended audiences, and perceived benefits of mental health blogging. Journal of Communication in Healthcare. 2019;12(2):112-120.
210. Fang L, Tarshis S, McInroy L, Mishna F. Undergraduate student experiences with text-based online counselling. British Journal of Social Work. 2018;48(6):1774-1790.
211. Harrison L, Wright J. The experiences of person-centred counsellors working with suicidal clients online through the medium of text. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling. 2020;48(4):576-591.
212. Burke K. 107 Texting Statistics That Answer All Your Questions. Available at https://www.textrequest.com/blog/texting-statistics-answer-questions. Last accessed December 7, 2020.
213. Dobrilova T. 35 Must-Know SMS Marketing Statistics in 2019. Available at https://techjury.net/stats-about/sms-marketing-statistics. Last accessed December 7, 2020.
214. Bechmann T, Sindahl TN, Wistoft J. Children’s experiences texting with a child helpline. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling. 2020;48(2):51-262.
215. Nesmith A. Reaching young people through texting-based crisis counseling. Advances in Social Work. 2019;18(4):1147-1164.
216. Karcher NR, Presser NR. Ethical and legal issues addressing the use of mobile health (mHealth) as an adjunct to psychotherapy. Ethics & Behavior. 2018;28(1):1-22.
217. Prescott J, Hanley T, Ujhelyi Gomez K. Why do young people use online forums for mental health and emotional support? Benefits and challenges. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling. 2019;47(3):317-327.
218. Smolenski DJ, Pruitt LD, Vuletic S, Luxton DD, Gahm G. Unobserved heterogeneity in response to treatment for depression through videoconference. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal. 2017;40(3):303-308.
219. Pompeo-Fargnoli A, Lapa A, Pellegrino C. Telemental health and student veterans: a practice perspective through voices from the field. Journal of Technology in Human Services. 2020;38(3):271-287.
220. van Rijn B, Cooper M, Chryssafidou E. Avatar-based counselling for young people within school counselling: qualitative analysis of client experience. Counselling & Psychotherapy Research. 2018;18(1):59-70.
221. Stephens JD, Yager AM, Allen J. Smartphone technology and text messaging for weight loss in young adults. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 2017;32(1):39-46.
222. Racine N, Hartwick C, Collin-Vézina D, Madigan S. Telemental health for child trauma treatment during and post-COVID-19: limitations and considerations. Child Abuse & Neglect. 2020; [Epub ahead of print].
223. Beebe S. Practice note. Journal of Technology in Human Services. 2018;36(2/3):163-171.
224. Tirel M, Rozgonjuk D, Purre M, Elhai JD. When do people seek Internet counseling? Exploring the temporal patterns of initial submissions to online counseling services. Journal of Technology in Human Services. 2020;38(2):184-202.
225. Takahashi K, Oishi T, Shimada M. Is ☺ smiling? Cross-cultural study on recognition of emoticon’s emotion. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 2017;48(10):1578-1586.
226. Butterworth SE, Giuliano TA, White J, Cantu L, Fraser KC. Sender gender influences emoji interpretation in text messages. Frontiers in Psychology. 2019;10:784.
227. Mattison M. Informed consent agreements: standards of care for digital social work practices. Journal of Social Work Education. 2018;54(2):227-238.
228. Reamer FG. Ethical standards for social workers’ use of technology: emerging consensus. Journal of Social Work Values and Ethics. 2018;15(2):71-80.
229. National Association of Social Workers. Code of Ethics. Available at https://www.socialworkers.org/About/Ethics/Code-of-Ethics/Code-of-Ethics-English. Last accessed December 7, 2020.
230. Matsushita Y, Mai TT, Thuy PTP, Takahashi T, Yokoyama T. P161 effectiveness of a lifestyle-related diseases prevention program based on the internet-based cognitive behavior therapy. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. 2019;51(7):S105.
231. Mehta S, Peynenburg VA, Hadjistavropoulos HD. Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy for chronic health conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 2019;42(2):169-187.
232. Kelson J, Rollin A, Ridout B, Campbell A. Internet-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy for anxiety treatment: systematic review. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2019;21(1):e12530.
233. Stjerneklar S, Hougaard E, McLellan LF, Thastum M. A randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of an internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy program for adolescents with anxiety disorders. PloS One. 2019;14(9):e0222485.
234. Webster P. World report: virtual health care in the era of COVID-19. Lancet. 2020;395(10231):1180-1181.